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    Software name: appdown
    Software type: Microsoft Framwork

    size: 571MB

    Lanuage:Englist

    Software instructions

      The steam cranes of Mr Morrison, which resemble hydraulic cranes, except that steam instead of water is employed as a medium for transmitting force, combine all the advantages of hydraulic apparatus, except positive movement, and evade the loss of power that occurs in the use of water. The elasticity of the steam is found in practice to offer no obstacle to steady and accurate movement of a load, provided the mechanism is well constructed, while the loss of heat by radiation is but trifling.


      To avoid imperfection in the running spindles of lathes, or any lateral movement which might exist in the running bearings, there have been many attempts to construct lathes with still centres at both ends for the more accurate kinds of work. Such an arrangement would produce a true cylindrical rotation, but must at the same time involve mechanical complication to outweigh the object gained. It has besides been proved by practice that good fitting and good material for the bearings and spindles of lathes will insure all the accuracy which ordinary work demands.


      "Are they genuine?"71

      A planing machine invented by Mr Bodmer in 1841, and since improved by Mr William Sellers of Philadelphia, is free from this elastic action of the platen, which is moved by a tangent wheel or screw pinion. In Bodmer's machine the shaft carrying the pinion was parallel to the platen, but in Sellers' machine is set on a shaft with its axis diagonal to the line of the platen movement, so that the teeth or threads of the pinion act partly by a screw motion, and partly by a progressive forward movement like the teeth of wheels. The rack on the platen of Mr Sellers' [134] machine is arranged with its teeth at a proper angle to balance the friction arising from the rubbing action of the pinion, which angle has been demonstrated as correct at 5°, the ordinary coefficient of friction; as the pinion-shaft is strongly supported at each side of the pinion, and the thrust of the cutting force falls mainly in the line of the pinion shaft, there is but little if any elasticity, so that the motion is positive and smooth.

      [93]


      To return to shop processes in manufacturing. Material operated upon has to be often, sometimes continually, moved from one place to another to receive successive operations, and this movement may be either vertically or horizontally as determined, first, by the relative facility with which the material may be raised vertically, or moved horizontally, and secondly, by [64] the value of the ground and the amount of room that may be available, and thirdly by local conditions of arrangement. In large cities, where a great share of manufacturing is carried on, the value of ground is so great that its cost becomes a valid reason for constructing high buildings of several storeys, and moving material vertically by hoists, thus gaining surface by floors, instead of spreading the work over the ground; nor is there any disadvantage in high buildings for most kinds of manufacture, including machine fitting even, a proposition that will hardly be accepted in Europe, where fitting operations, except for small pieces, are rarely performed on upper floors.

      Artistic drawing is addressed to the senses, geometrical drawing is addressed to the understanding. Geometrical drawing may, however, include artistic skill not in the way of ornamentation, but to convey an impression of neatness and completeness, that has by common custom been assumed among engineers, and which conveys to the mind an idea of competent construction in the drawing itself, as well as of the machinery which is represented. Artistic effect, so far as admissible in mechanical drawing, is easy to learn, and should be understood, yet through a desire to make pictures, a beginner is often led to neglect that which is more important in the way of accuracy and arrangement.

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      Motion or power may be varied to almost any degree by the ratio between the pistons of pumps and the pistons which give off the power, the same general arrangement of machinery answering in all cases; whereas, with gearing the quantity of machinery has to be increased as the motive power and the applied power may vary in time and force. This as said recommends hydraulic apparatus where a great force is required at intervals, and it is in such cases that it was first employed, and is yet for the most part used.

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      In this grand old monastery, both inside and out a jewel of architecture, about five hundred people had found shelter. They were lodged in halls, rooms, and kitchens. The fathers gave them everything in the way of food they might require, but they had to do their own cooking. As not one of these people had a home left, which they could call their own, no wonder that they greatly admired the fathers. Often when I strolled about with one of these, one or other of the refugees came to him to press his hand and express gratitude for the hospitality offered.

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      "Tell me, father," he began, "did you allow this man by your side to stay the night at your house?"


      alllittle